Research Database

This tool allows education practitioners and researchers to quickly access quantitative research on tutoring program effectiveness. These 150+ research studies were selected due to their rigorous research designs which align with What Works Clearinghouse and Every Student Succeeds Act standards for moderate and strong evidence of intervention efficacy. Many studies were originally identified by their inclusion in recent meta-analyses (Baye et al., 2018; Neitzel et al., 2021; Nickow et al., 2020). Research may be sorted by grade level, subject, and tutor type in order to explore the evidence base for particular program designs. This database does not include qualitative research on best practices for tutoring implementation, for which we recommend exploring our District Playbook and Toolkit for Tutoring Programs.

If you have additional research studies (quantitative or qualitative) that you would like to share, please fill out this form or send an email to

Displaying 121 - 150 of 156
Effects of reading decodable texts in supplemental first-grade tutoring. (2004). Jenkins, J. R., Peyton, J. A., Sanders, E. A., & Vadasy, P. F.. Scientific Studies of Reading.

Short-term impact of experience Corps® participation on children and schools: Results from a pilot randomized trial. (2004). Rebok, G. W., Carlson, M. C., Glass, T. A., McGill, S., Hill, J., Wasik, B. A., Ialongo, N., Frick, K. D., Fried, L. P., & Rasmussen, M. D.. Journal of Urban Health : Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 81(1), 79–93.

Effects of two tutoring programs on the English reading development of Spanish-English bilingual students. (2004). Denton, C. A., Anthony, J. L., Parker, R., & Hasbrouck, J. E.. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 289–305.

Teaching reading to poor readers in the intermediate grades: A comparison of text difficulty. (2002). O'Connor, R. E., Bell, K. M., Harty, K. R., Larkin, L. K., Sackor, S. M., & Zigmond, N.. Journal of Educational Psychology.

Early Steps: Replicating the effects of a first-grade reading intervention program. (2000). Morris, D., Tyner, B., & Perney, J.. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(4), 681–693.

Parent tutoring in reading using literature and curriculum materials: Impact on student reading achievement. (2000). Powell-Smith, K. A., Shinn, M. R., Stoner, G., & Good III, R. H.. School Psychology Review, 29(1), 5–27.

Longitudinal Study of the Reading Recovery Program. (1999). Huggins, R.. Detroit, MI: Detroit Public Schools Retried April 8, 2021 from Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC).

The effectiveness of adult volunteer tutoring on reading among “at risk” first grade children. (1998). Rimm‐Kaufman, S. E., Kagan, J., & Byers, H.. Literacyeracy Research and Instruction

Prevention and remediation of severe reading disabilities: Keeping the end in mind. (1997). Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C. A.. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1(3), 217–234.

Community-based early reading intervention for at-risk first graders. (1997). Vadasy, P. F., Jenkins, J. R., Antil, L. R., & Wayne, S. K.. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice..

The Effectiveness of One-to-One Tutoring by Community Tutors for at-Risk Beginning Readers. (1997). Vadasy, P. F., Jenkins, J. R., Antil, L. R., Wayne, S. K., & O’Connor, R. E.. Learning Disability Quarterly, 20(2), 126–139.

An evaluation of the paired reading program using competency-based training. (1996). Miller, B. V., & Kratochwill, T. R.. School Psychology International, 17(3), 269–291.

An evaluation of reading recovery. (1995). Center, Y., Wheldall, K., Freeman, L., Outhred, L., & McNaught, M.. Reading Research Quarterly.

Comparing Instructional Models for the Literacyeracy Education of High-Risk First Graders. (1994). Pinnell, G. S., Lyons, C. A., DeFord, D. E., Bryk, A. S., & Seltzer, M.. Reading Research Quarterly, 29(1), 9–39.

Comparing instructional models for the literacy education of high-risk first graders. (1994). Pinnell, G. S., Lyons, C. A., DeFord, D. E., Bryk, A. S., & Seltzer, M.. Reading Research Quarterly, 29(1), 8–39.

Effects of an experimental mentoring program on measures of performance of at-risk elementary students . (1993). Lorenzo, S. L.. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida