Research Database

This tool allows education practitioners and researchers to quickly access quantitative research on tutoring program effectiveness. These 150+ research studies were selected due to their rigorous research designs which align with What Works Clearinghouse and Every Student Succeeds Act standards for moderate and strong evidence of intervention efficacy. Many studies were originally identified by their inclusion in recent meta-analyses (Baye et al., 2018; Neitzel et al., 2021; Nichow et al., 2020). Research may be sorted by grade level, subject, and tutor type in order to explore the evidence base for particular program designs. This database does not include qualitative research on best practices for tutoring implementation, for which we recommend exploring our District Playbook and Toolkit for Tutoring Programs.

If you have additional research studies (quantitative or qualitative) that you would like to share, please fill out this form or send an email to

Displaying 1 - 30 of 45
Efficacy of a Word- and Text-Based Intervention for Students With Significant Reading Difficulties. (2019). Vaughn, S., Roberts, G. J., Miciak, J., Taylor, P., & Fletcher, J. M.. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 52(1), 31–44.

A Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Descubriendo la Lectura. (2019). Borman, G. D., Borman, T. H., Park, S. J., & Houghton, S.. American Educational Research Journal.

Examining the Effects and Feasibility of a Teacher-Implemented Tier 1 and Tier 2 Intervention in Word Reading, Fluency, and Comprehension. (2018). Solari, E. J., Denton, C. A., Petscher, Y., & Haring, C.. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 11(2), 163–191.

Effects of a year long supplemental reading intervention for students with reading difficulties in fourth grade. (2017). Wanzek, J., Petscher, Y., Otaiba, S. A., Rivas, B. K., Jones, F. G., Kent, S. C., Schatschneider, C., & Mehta, P.. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(8), 1103–1119.

Reading Recovery: An Evaluation of the Four-Year i3 Scale-Up. (2016). May, H., Sirinides, P. M., Gray, A., & Goldsworthy, H.. CPRE Research Reports.

Rapid Phonics: Evaluation report and executive summary. (2015). King, B., & Kasim, A.. London: Education Endowment Foundation.

Intervention for first graders with limited number knowledge: Large-scale replication of a randomized controlled trial. (2015). Gersten, R., Rolfhus, E., Clarke, B., Decker, L. E., Wilkins, C., & Dimino, J. (2015). American Educational Research Journal, 52(3), 516–546.

An experimental evaluation of guided reading and explicit interventions for primary-grade students at-risk for reading difficulties. (2014). Denton, C. A., Fletcher, J. M., Taylor, W. P., Barth, A. E., & Vaughn, S.. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 7(3), 268–293.

Intensive Reading Remediation in Grade 2 or 3: Are There Effects a Decade Later?. (2014). Blachman, B. A., Schatschneider, C., Fletcher, J. M., Murray, M. S., Munger, K. A., & Vaughn, M. G.. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(1), 46–57.

Every Child Counts: Testing policy effectiveness using a randomised controlled trial, designed, conducted and reported to CONSORT standards. (2013). Torgerson, C. J., Wiggins, A., Torgerson, D., Ainsworth, H., & Hewitt, C. . doi:10.1080/14794802.2013.797746. doi:10.1080/14794802.2013.797746

Live webcam coaching to help early elementary classroom teachers provide effective literacy instruction for struggling readers: The Targeted Reading Intervention. (2013). Vernon-Feagans, L., Kainz, K., Hedrick, A., Ginsberg, M., & Amendum, S.. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(4), 1175–1187.

Efficacy of the Leveled Literacyeracy Intervention System for K–2 urban students: An empirical evaluation of LLI in Denver Public Schools. (2013). Ransford-Kaldon, C. R., Ross, C. L., Lee, C. C., Sutton Flynt, E., Franceschini, L. A., & Zoblotsky, T. A.. Memphis, TN: Center for Research in Educational Policy..

Replicating the impact of a supplemental beginning reading intervention: The role of instructional context. (2013). Coyne, M. D., Literacytle, M., Rawlinson, D., Simmons, D., Kwok, O., Kim, M., Simmons, L., Hagan-Burke, S., & Civetelli, C.. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 6(1), 1–23.

Evaluating math recovery: Assessing the causal impact of a diagnostic tutoring program on student achievement. (2013). Smith, T. M., Cobb, P., Farran, D. C., Cordray, D. S., & Munter, C. . American Educational Research Journal, 50(2), 397–428.

Pearson Words Their Way: Word study in action: Intervention efficacy study final report . (2011). Eddy, R. M., Ruitman, H. T., Hankel, N., Matelski, M. H., & Schmalstig, M. . La Verne, CA: Cobblestone Applied Research

The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention. (2011). Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Ginsberg, M. C.. The Elementary School Journal, 112(1), 107–131.

Effects of supplemental reading interventions in authentic contexts: A comparison of kindergarteners’ response . (2011). Simmons, D. C., Coyne, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., Kwok, O.-M., Simmons, L., Johnson, C., Zou, Y., Taylor, A. B., Mcalenney, A. L., Ruby, M., & Crevecoeur, Y. C.. Exceptional Children, 77(2), 207–228.

Effectiveness of a supplemental early reading intervention scaled up in multiple schools. (2010). Denton, C. A., Nimon, K., Mathes, P. G., Swanson, E. A., Kethley, C., Kurz, T. B., & Shih, M.. The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk.…

Implementation of effective intervention: An empirical study to evaluate the efficacy of fountas & pinnell’s leveled literacy intervention system . (2010). Ransford-Kaldon, C. R., Flynt, E. S., Ross, C. L., Franceschini, L., Zoblotsky, T., Huang, Y., & Gallagher, B.. Center for Research in Educational Policy (CREP).

Computer assisted instruction to prevent early reading difficulties in students at risk for dyslexia: Outcomes from two instructional approaches. (2009). Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Herron, J., & Lindamood, P. . Annals of Dyslexia, 60(1), 40–56.

Effects of preventative tutoring on the mathematical problem solving of third-grade students with math and reading difficulties. (2008). Fuchs, L. S., Seethaler, P. M., Powell, S. R., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Fletcher, J. M.. Exceptional Children.

Closing the reading gap: Findings from a randomized trial of four reading interventions for striving readers. (2007). Torgesen, J. K., Schirm, A., Castner, L., Vartivarian, S., Mansfield, W., Myers, D., … Haan, C. . Washington, D.C.: US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.

The effects of theoretically different instruction and student characteristics on the skills of struggling readers. (2005). Mathes, P. G., Denton, C. A., Fletcher, J. M., Anthony, J. L., Francis, D. J., & Schatschneider, C.. Reading Research Quarterly.…